products of traditional biotechnology

Difference between Old Biotechnology and New Biotechnology Biotechnology is the controlled and deliberate application of simple biological agents-living or dead cells or cell components-in technically useful operations either of productive manufacture or as service operation. Biotechnology has been used since ancient times for example in the making of wine, cheese, beer, and even animal breeding. In 2012, North Carolina was the 5th largest state in this segment with 5.9% of U.S. employment and 3.1% of establishments. Activities along the chain include agriculture feedstock and chemicals; drugs and pharmaceuticals; medical devices and equipment; and research, testing and labs. When the center started in 1981, there were six North Carolina companies in the field of biotechnology; by 1988, that number had increased to 15-20 with sales of $100 million; in 1998, there were 80 companies with sales of $1.2 billion; in 2005, there were almost 175 companies with sales of $4 billion (21). Traditional biotechnology includes selective breeding of plants and animals; modern biotechnology includes DNA testing medical devices, and pharmaceutical products, among others. Retrieved March 21, 2014 from, Battelle Technology Partnership Practice. North Carolina, with its unique mix of industries, from information technology, biotech, and banking, to the traditional sectors of textiles & apparel, furniture, tobacco, and hog farming, is a microcosm of trends observed elsewhere in the United States. The importance of patents to biotech firms is especially acute in the U.S., as U.S. biotech firms have been the most prolific patent seekers in the world with an estimated 60% to 70% of all biotech patents in all OECD countries being first issued in the U.S. (14). As costs for developing a new biologic are often well into the billions of USDs, the growing trend for cash rich biotech firms is to buyout smaller biotech companies that own multiple patents and/or have multiple ongoing products in development. The key rationale behind this growth is the enormous potential cost savings generics offer the consumer over brand name variants. One of the principle contributors to the industry’s growth has been the contribution made through the manufacturing and sale of ‘biosimilars’ (generics). Singh, A., Zook, C. and N. Hueltenschmidt, (2004, July/August). North Carolina Employment Security Commission (NCESC), "Labor Market Information," Accessed on August 3, 2007. Plant products of biotechnology have been available in the market for 23 years in 2018. While much of global outsourcing has been primarily concentrated at CROs within the U.S. (64%) and Western Europe (15%) from 2000 to 2011 (11), outsourcing to Asia – especially to China and India – has been growing with remarkable pace. These crops offer several benefits both farmers and consumers. Biotechnology can be broadly defined as "using organisms or their products for commercial purposes." A Charlotte research institute is created to accelerate the creation of biotechnology jobs in the Charlotte region. Traditional biotech involves use of natural organisms to create or modify food or other useful products for human use, while modern biotech involves manipulation of genes and living tissues in a controlled environment to generate new tissue. Due to the intrinsic nature of global trade in biotech products, and the fact that many biotech patent holders engage in some/multiple form(s) of international business, ensuring patent protections are upheld and that the authenticity of patents are legitimized at national and international levels remains of crucial importance to the industry. Driving much of the international growth in CRO outsourcing has been due to the emerging bio-clusters in China, Singapore, and India, which have been capturing larger shares of the global biotechnology market – as evidenced by the biotech cluster, Biopolis, in Singapore which grew by 30% in 2011 generating $22.8 billion in economic output and supporting over 6,000 jobs (13). For example, the biotech R&D outsourcing market in China was estimated to be worth $4 billion in 2010 and growing at an annual rate of 25% (12). Batiz-Lazo, B. Since 2001, the popularity of NC as a biotech destination has resulted in the creation of more than 12,000 jobs with three specific subsectors—drugs and pharmaceuticals, research, testing and medical labs, agricultural feedstock and chemicals—showing robust growth (18). Biotechnology Centers and Technology Based Economic Development.”. The biotechnology industry can be divided into four main segments: The biotechnology industry in North Carolina gained traction through the establishment of Research Triangle Park (RTP) in the late 1950s and the North Carolina Biotechnology Center (Biotech Center) in the 1980s. (It has been used to:) bake bread, brew alcoholic beverages, and breed food crops or domestic animals (2). This shift is occurring largely because the cost of doing early drug development work, such as toxicology studies, in places like China, Singapore and India can be as low as 10% to 40% of the U.S./Western Europe costs (5). Today, biotechnology covers many different disciplines (eg. Initial legislation on the use of generics was not developed until the1970s and until the late 80s no biopharm generics were yet being manufactured (7). developed rapidly because of the new possibility to make changes in the organisms' genetic material (DNA). Over time, however, as emerging talent clusters grow and evolve and as new technology and regulations are introduced, the global dynamics of biotech outsourcing will continue to be shaped and reshaped. Gertrude Belle Elion shares the Nobel Prize with George Hitchings for their work developing drugs that became critical for leukemia treatments. 2013 estimates in annual savings to the U.S. health care industry from the use of bio-generics range from the conservative $42 billion/year, to $108 billion/year (15). Brewing and baking bread are examples of processes that fall within the concept of biotechnology (use of yeast (= living organism) to produce the desired product). New legislation in 2010 known as the, Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act 2010 (BPCI) – As part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act – has helped streamline the application and approval process for bio-generics (16; also see Biotechology Policy Section). Beer has been brewed for thousands of years. Estimates from 2003 noted that 44.7% of jobs going overseas and 41.9% of those that get outsourced to U.S.-based companies were those of clinical scientists (3), and updated assessments in 2012 suggest similar numbers (10). medicine (development of new medicines and therapies), agriculture (development of genetically modified plants, biofuels, biological treatment) or industrial biotechnology (production of chemicals, paper, textiles and food). genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, etc.). North Carolina’s main U.S. competitors in this segment are California, New Jersey, New York and Illinois. Additionally, research and development-oriented computer specialists have made up approximately 12.4% and 28.8% of jobs outsourced to domestic and foreign companies respectively, whereas scientific laboratory technicians tip the other way, making up outsourcing percentages of 36.1% and 16.7% respectively over the same categories (4). Retrieved March 14, 2014 from www.ncbiotech.org, Biotechnology Institute. “, Biotechnology Industry Organization. As illustrated above, several biotechnology firms have strategic interest in retaining control of proprietary information and to efficiently monitor and troubleshoot production. By 2012 this figure had risen close to 40% (10). Resizing the Global Contract R&D Services Market: A new Study Revises Estimates on the Market. While M&As have been increasing, new firm creation in the biotech industry grew at an average annual rate of 1.5% between 2008 and 2013 (14). Our knowledge on biological processes of the barley-to-beer chain and tools to control the process and product quality, benefit from the development of basic sciences and engineering. While profit margins have been mixed over the last decade amongst U.S. biotech firms due to high costs of investment and the global economic downturn in 2008-2010, growth from 2010 to 2013 has been strong, and in 2013 the industry reported record revenues over $93 billion (14). New technologies and products are developed every year within the areas of eg. The Biotech Center was the first state-sponsored initiative in the U.S. whose mission was to develop biotechnology (21). As farmers, humans collected wild plants and cultivated them and the In 1992, the industry employed 33,514 workers and has nearly doubled to 62,348 in 2012. Outsourcing has become an increasingly important issue in high-tech industries like biotechnology, as other countries seek to build global technology hubs and attract top-notch talent. In this section we introduce the key sections of the website, including the structure of the industry using a value chain framework, an overview of the industry across multiple areas including the labor market, international trade and policy, and the key trends and dynamics that are shaping this industry now and in the future.

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